The article is focused on the life and scientific activity of M.Ya. Vygodsky, a Soviet mathematician, one of the founders of the Soviet school of mathematics history. The article presents a chronology of M. Ya. Vygodsky's life in the context of some events that influenced his life and professional trajectory. Special attention is paid to the epi-sode related to the critical campaign against his book “Galileo and the Inquisition” (1934). In this context, the figure of A.A. Maximov, who led the attacks on M.Ya. Vygodsky, is examined, and the two personalities are contrasted within the framework of this interaction. The author of the article, the great-grandson of M.Ya. Vygodsky, demonstrates how the life and creative work of the scientist are interconnected with the historical and cultural context of the 20th century. The attention is paid to the serious disfavor and sanctions to which the scientist was subjected during his life.
M.Ya. Vygodsky; Historical and Mathematical School; Moscow Mathematical Society; O.Y. Schmidt; D.D. Morduhay-Boltovsky; N.Ya. Vygodsky.